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Fulget in orbe dies - Rhymed Office to Saint Jadwiga
Schola Mulierum Silesiensis • Schola Gregoriana Silesiensis 

 

 

Fulget in orbe dies – The day shines upon the Earth – these are the opening words of the rhymed office to saint Jadwiga, patron of Silesia. Together with a group of singers from Wrocław we have been long preparing to this breakneck task, as the recording of this liturgical cycle turned out to be. Difficulties were showing up at every stage of this project’s preparation and relisation. First of all we had to find the best manuscript version. In the Wrocław University library, being the biggest Polish treasury of medieval manuscripts, one may find several antiphoners containing five offices dedicated to the saint patron of Silesia. Likewise in a number of breviaries of that date one may find complete text of the cycle. Following suggestions of rev. Stanisław Araszczuk, we have chosen the Breviarium cisterciense form Henryków (Heinrichau) dating back to break of the 13th/14th c. (IQ 244), containing the complete text of the oldest of the offices – Fulget in orbe dies. For the source music we turned to Antiphonarium cisterciense from Lubiąż (Leubus) from the end of the 13th c. (IF 401) containing a full office written in a precise neumatic notation placing the music signs on four, sometimes five coloured staves. Choosing this manuscript allowed us the direct reading of the notation, without arranging any transcription which usually blurs details of the original version.
Such attitude to work on the office provoked also other difficulties and emotions connected with solving and interpreting medieval abbreviations – once commonly understood, today incomprehensible – used by the 14th c. scribes taking care of lowering the costs of liturgical parchments’ production. Here we owe much to linguists and paleographists. We likewise express our thanks to translators who devoted many hours of their time to understanding this difficult and mannerist Latin verses of the rhymed text!
Neumatic notation on staves seems to be a translocation of neums resembling the oldest Benedictine notation (e.g.. Antiphonarium monasticum of Hartker) into the four-stave system which had been used commonly since the invention of a more simple square notation. This complex system appears first around the 11th c. in codices with so-called old-Roman chant (St. Cecilia) and also in probable the most famous occidental chant-book – Codex Calixtinus – containing liturgical chants dedicated to saint Jacob. We had an opportunity of studying this notation during preparations to performance of Missa sancti Iacobi at Jarosław festival “Song of Our Roots” in 2001. Of great help was the basic manual for neums-interpretation – Gregorian Semiology by Eugene Cardine OSB. All this permitted us to include the St. Jadwiga project in the 9 years-long course of our cantors’ practice of sacred chant. We owe much to the experience of Marcel Pérès and Marcin Bornus-Szczyciński who have been working on different repertories of traditional sacred chant (i.a. Dominican chant). We were also inspired by numerous meetings with Greek singers; it was though from Greece that many liturgical books used in Rome were originating – Greek cantors instructed the Metz singers, teaching them church modes. This we arrived to a result of a modal rhythm, regulated by strict rules and modal tuning, which is on the same time strictly connected with the metric and rhetoric of the rhymed text of Fulget in orbe dies office.
So we had to apply our cantors’ experience to the notation and interpret the Office. Of great value to our work were the works of rev. Józef Ścibor analysing the Cistercian modality. This theory is illustrated by i.a. scales-scheme found in the 14th c. Graduale cisterciense from Lubiąż (IF 414) and “Guido’s hand” in the 13th c. Psalterium nocturnum from Trzebnica (IF 440). Unfortunately in accessible Low-Silesian sources we did not find the music for Te Deum so we have “borrowed” a pattern from the 13th c. Cistercian manuscript kept in the collection of Cologne University (C1161); here a surprise – a versicle Te decet laus added at the end of this solemn chant!
Finally the recording session. The venue was a well-proved church of ss. Peter and Paul on the Ostrów Tumski in Wrocław. Our goal was not to equalise and smoothen individual voices of our cantors. Unfortunately we could not record the complete office and the reason was prosaic: four and half hours of singing do not fit to a 2CD-set! We had to make necessary cuts: the original text of the office remained complete, yet all 39 psalms are reduced to 2 or 3-verse passages. The “Little Hours” – prime, terce, sext and none are put together into one Day Prayer with four consecutive fragments of Psalm 118 (formally belonging to prime) and 3 capitulum. We also performed all which is noted in the rubrics of antiphoner – versicula and Te Deum. Except for Deus in adiutorium, collect and Benedicamus Domino we did not include parts of the priest, i.e. nocturnal benedictions, praeces and orationes belonging to ordinarium – Kyrie eleison and Pater noster. These loses are significant; nevertheless we new we would not be able to record and edit the complete office – who wants to learn the whole, should sing it oneself!
One more question to conclude: In those days, was it possible that the solemn office was celebrated and performed jointly by monks and nuns?...

Robert Pożarski 
translated by Maciej Kaziński

[CD 1:]

I Vesperis:


[1] Deus in adiutorium.
[2] Ant. Fulget in orbe dies t. I
Ps. 109 Dixit Dominus
[3] Ant. Lux calebris t. II
Ps. 112 Laudate, pueri
[4] Ant. Digna fide domina t. IV
Ps. 121 Latatus sum
[5] Ant. Hadwigis celebris t. V
Ps. 147 Lauda, Ierusalem
[6] Capitulum Eccl. 24, 1-2
[7] Resp. Sit laus Dei filio t. V
[8] Hymnus Exsultent hodie t. VIII
[9] Versiculus Diffusa est gratia
[10] Ant. Gaude solum Slezia t. VI
Cant. Maria Magnificat

Invitatorium:

[11] Ant. Assunt solempnia t. IV
Ps. 94 Venite, exsultemus Domino

I Nocturno:

[12] Ant. Ex preclaro connubio t. I
Ps. 8 Domine, Dominus
[13] Ant. Potita matrimonio t. II
Ps. 18 Cali enarrant
[14] Ant. Cristianis cultibus t. III
Ps. 23 Domini est terra
[15] Ant. Mundanis honoribus t. IV
Ps. 44 Eructavit cor meum
[16] Ant. A lege thori libera t. V
Ps. 45 Deus noster refugium
[17] Ant. Dictis evangelicis t. VI
Ps. 47 Magnus Dominus
[18] Versiculus Specie tua
[19] Lectio Sanctis Clementis papa (i) 
[20] Resp. Gaude prole tali nata t. I
[21] Lectio Sanctis Clementis papa (ii) 
[22] Resp. Signum resultat in calo t. II
[23] Lectio Sanctis Clementis papa (iii)
[24] Resp. Ex nobili stirpe nata t. III
[25] Lectio Sanctis Clementis papa (iv)
[26] Resp. Hadwigis mater pauperum t. V

II Nocturno: 

[27] Ant. Biduano ieiunio t. VII
Ps. 84 Benedixisti, Domine
[28] Ant. Nil relinquens propter victum t. VIII
Ps. 86 Fundamenta eius
[29] Ant. Gaudebat dapis munere t. I
Ps. 95 Cantate Domino
[30] Ant. Nivis in algoribus t. II
Ps. 96 Dominus regnavit
[31] Ant. Mutato iultus pallio t. IV
Ps. 97 Cantate Domino
[32] Ant. Circuibat sedula t. VI
Ps. 97 Dominus regnavit
[33] Versiculus Adiuvabit eam Deus
[34] Lectio Sanctis Clementis papa (v)
[35] Resp. Manus beata Hadwigis t. V
[36] Lectio Sanctis Clementis papa (vi)
[37] Resp. Margarita solo tecta t. VII
[38] Lectio Verbo sancti Clementi papa (vii)
[39] Resp. Agypti nuda pallio t. V
[40] Lectio Verbo sancti Clementi papa (viii)
[41] Resp. Audi, mater orphanorum t. I

[CD 2:]

III Nocturno:


[1] Ant. Mundo festus instat dies t. I
Cant. Moysi Audite cali
[2] Versiculus Elegit eam Dominus
[3] Lectio De Vita maior (i)
[4] Resp. Quedum oraret t. VI
[5] Lectio De Vita maior (ii)
[6] Resp. Felix illa femina t. VI
[7] Lectio De Vita maior (iii)
[8] Resp. Orta stirpe regia t. V
[9] Lectio De Vita maior (iv)
[10] Resp. Sit laus Dei filio t. V
[11] Hymnus Te Deum

Laudes:

[12] Ant. Hadwigis Dei laudibus t. I
Ps. 92 Dominus regnavit
Ps. 99 Iubilate Deo omnis terra
Ps. 62 Deus, Deus meus
Cant. Trium puerorum Benedicite, omnia opera
Ps. 148 Laudate Dominum de calis
[13] Capitulum Mulierem fortem quis inveniet
[14] Ant. Alma pupillorum mater t. V
Cant. Zaccharia Benedictus Dominus

Prima:

[15] Ant. Adest dies latitia t. I
Ps. 118 i Beati immaculati in via

Tertia:

[16] Ant. O, lampas ecclesia t. V
Ps. 118 ii Retribue servo tua
[17] Capitulum Non timebit domui

Sexta:

[18] Ant. Hac est Hadwigis beata t. II
Ps. 118 iii Legem pone mihi, Domine
[19] Capitulum Fortitudo et decor

Nona: 

[20] Ant. Amicta sole femina t. IV
Ps. 118 iv Memor esto verbi tui servo tu
[21] Capitulum In medio populi

II Vesperis:

[22] Ant. Ex preclaro connubio t. I
Ps. 109 [...] Virgam virtutis tua
Ps. 111 Beatus vir
Ps. 112 [...] A solis ortu
Ps. 115 Credidi, propter
Ps. 125 In convertendo Dominus
[23] Capitulum Fallax gratia et vana
[24] Hymnus Oret hac, Domine t. VIII
[25] Versiculus Adducentur regi virgines
[26] Ant. Glorietur in hac die t. V
Cant. Maria Magnificat
[27] Oratio Deus, gratia dator
[28] Benedicamus Domino t. VI

Schola Mulierum Silesiensis:


1st Choir 

Joanna Jabłońska
Marta Kurian - kantorka
Marzena Maluga
Natalia Niedźwiecka
Wiktoryna Puzanowska

2nd Choir

Ewelina Krzywka
Marta Niedźwiecka
Paulina Soczewka - kantorka
Katarzyna Zedel


Schola Gregoriana Silesiensis:

 

1st Choir

Marek Czapiński
Tomasz Dajczak
Michał Krzywka
Piotr Łoziński
Krzysztof Ochnik
Robert Pożarski - kantor

2nd Choir

Krzysztof Caputa
Adam Poznański
Marcin Szargut
Konrad Zagajewski - kantor
Damian Zazula

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