click to enlarge photo.
Comparison of an Introit of the Mass record from Resurrection Sunday (Dominica Resurrections) originating from “Graduale Triplex” (1979), consisting of drifted neumes from a manuscript from Laon (late 10th century -black neumes) and from a manuscript from Einsiedeln (early 11th century- red neumes), with the record of an identical musical work from Graduale Monasticum of the Claris Monastery in Krakow (mid-13th century).
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Although 13th / 14th century manuscripts, in the so called Dominican system, are our main source of materials, we often explore older Benedicts sources such as those consisting of the neumatic notation system. “Gradulae Triplex”, a work of Benedicts from Solesmes, is our most commonly used tool for practical interpretation. The Cantional consists of a mass repertoire recorded in a square notation and additional neumatic record; in the Cantional there were three versions of the same musical work included therefore it was called “triplex”. Our fundamental textbook, which enables us to thoroughly read out a melody and a rhythm in the “Graduale Triplex”, is “Gregorian Semiology” by Dom Eugéne Cardine – an exquisite translation by Maciej Kaziński and Michał Siciarka, published by the Benedicts Monastery in Tyniec in 2000.
Father Eugéne Cardine (1905-1988) joined a Benedict’s Convent in the French Abbey of St. Peter in Solesmes in 1928. From 1952 to 1984 he was a professor at Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome. Initially, as a professor of paleography but later as a professor of Gregorian semiology he was examining with great care and detail the oldest musical records of Gregorian choral. He was also engaged in a search for connotations between details of the records and performance of the choral chants. Cardine’s and his students’ work in this field resulted in a distinct research trend that in 1954 was named by Cardine as “Gregorian semiology”. The work, currently being released in Poland, was published for the first time in Rome in 1968 under the name “Semiologia Gregoriana”. Soon after, a French version was prepared together with other translations. This translation is based on a French edition. Even today Cardine’s work is being treated as a standard reference for researchers and an irreplaceable textbook for students [ translator’s note].
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Descriptions of musical sources and texts of musical treaties that we use for correct reading of original musical records.
Treaty of Hieronim from Moravia in Latin
page from the Dominican Liturgy Prototype (1256), St. Sabin assembly in Rome (click to enlarge photo)